Thomas Bender’s chapter, “Intellectual and Cultural History,” explores how intellectual history should be preserved “as an established way of training historians to read texts closely and rigorously”[1] and how intellectual history needs to remain “a specialization that examines a significant social group—intellectuals—as a social type and as active and self-conscious participants in a continuous and ever-changing public discourse on the human condition.”[2]  This exploration is accomplished through a chronological discussion of intellectual history that focuses on the pivotal intellectual historians of each major time period within the progression of intellectual history and their works.  The majority of the sources used by Bender during his essay are the monographs published by the historians discussed within his article; the remaining sources used being substantial academic articles and primary documents of note.


[1] Thomas Bender, “Intellectual and Cultural History,” in The New American History, ed. Eric Foner (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1997), 182.

[2] Ibid.